Sociodemographic functions provided racial mind-classification (white otherwise low-light e.g. black colored, brown, reddish, otherwise indigenous), place of household (urban otherwise rural), education (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–eleven, or ? several ages), and you can monthly household income each capita for the tertiles (lowest, center, otherwise large). This new urban–rural class try based on the steps employed by the brand new Brazilian Institute out of Topography and you will Statistics (for the Portuguese, IBGE) for the 2010 population census from management constraints set-out by the regional guidelines. Within this for every single municipality’s limitations, these types of local laws and regulations expose an imaginary range named “urban edge”. The brand new census tracts located for the “metropolitan fringe” is actually called metropolitan, while the residual areas is designated outlying. Others guidance try obtained courtesy a face-to-deal with interview at the participant’s home.
Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (
Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>
Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).
The features of the analysis people by sex can be seen inside Table step one. In both sexes, very participants have been non-light, lived-in brand new town, got 0–cuatro many years of education, and you can demonstrated enhanced waist circumference. In regards to the Body mass Portugisisk vakre kvinner index, overweight are the most prevalent category for men (42.9%), if you find yourself obese and you can obesity had nearly comparable wavelengths for females (thirty six.9% and thirty five.4%, respectively). Out of persistent problems, forty two.1% of participants reported with a medical analysis of arterial blood circulation pressure, 17.4% of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% out-of osteoporosis, 7.4% off cardiovascular system sickness (angina, myocardial infarction, and you can center failure), and 5.7% of respiratory sickness (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary problem).